Let's open this post with a little Law 101; a little primer on how law in the U.S. often gets made.

After the U.S. Supreme Court issues a landmark opinion on a controversial law or policy, lawmakers and policymakers craft laws or policies that push right up against the decision's boundaries. That, of course, leads to more challenges, which leads to fine tuning by the Supreme Court, sometimes by taking new cases, other times by letting rulings made by lower courts stand. Over a period of years, sometimes decades, Congress, state and local lawmakers, schoolboards, corporate America, police and fire departments, and many many others learn what they can and can't do.